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Three Causes I Modified My Thoughts About Penal Substitution

I used to be raised within the form of evangelical church that drummed into us as youngsters that Jesus died to avoid wasting us from our sins. The cross of Jesus was the middle of the message at summer time camps, vacation Bible golf equipment, and youth group talks. Jesus had died in my place, bearing my sin and its punishment for me, so I may know God and dwell with him without end.

After I started studying theological books and exploring the religion for myself, I grew suspicious of the beliefs I’d been raised with. I learn some considerate authors who raised severe questions on the best way I’d at all times understood the cross and salvation. I learn Brian McLaren’s A New Type of Christian. I learn Steve Chalke and Alan Mann’s now-famous line in The Misplaced Message of Jesus:


The cross isn’t a type of cosmic little one abuse—a vengeful Father, punishing his Son for an offence he has not even dedicated. . . . If the cross is a private act of violence perpetrated by God in direction of humankind however borne by his Son, then it makes a mockery of Jesus’ personal educating to like your enemies. . . the concept God was an offended deity, requiring a sacrifice to propitiate his wrath was absolutely extra like an historical pagan god than the Father of Jesus Christ.

I learn critiques of Anselm’s concept of satisfaction, which revealed how influential it had been, but the way it was certain to its medieval, Western, forensic classes. Greater than that, the concept God is an offended deity—requiring a sacrifice to propitiate his wrath—was absolutely extra like an historical pagan god than the Father of Jesus Christ.

If something, early church writers apparently steered away from these pagan motifs and spoke concerning the cross in ways in which didn’t deal with God’s wrath, sin’s penalty, and substitution. Such an image appeared to emerge solely as “a courtroom drama of Calvin’s imagination,” as Bradley Jersak put it. It made God out to be offended, his Son a sufferer, and me a grateful however (barely shaken) beneficiary of the crucifixion’s violent horrors.

The imaginative and prescient of the atonement I’d grown up with appeared horribly distorted, simplistic, and never traditionally supported. It was time to maneuver on.

There and Again Once more

As I stored studying over time, nevertheless, I sensed my theological revolution had been hasty. Was my childhood understanding of the cross simplistic and naïve? Certain—I used to be a toddler, in any case. So it was straightforward to learn adult-level critiques of Sunday faculty illustrations and scoff. It was straightforward to deconstruct my “youth group” religion and proudly ditch it for the enlightenment of my new favourite authors.

Was it actually a theological revolution if I by no means had a severe atonement theology to start with?

However was it actually a theological revolution if I by no means had a severe atonement theology to start with? I hadn’t learn a lot Calvin, Irenaeus, Anselm, or Athanasius. I hadn’t spent a lot time digging into Scripture both—which ought to’ve been a warning to me. Doing theology this manner has a humorous manner of exposing us. I started to comprehend that the vengeful, pagan, loveless god I’d supposedly believed in bore no relation to the actual God I had come to belief as a bit boy. Simply how dependable had my new guides been?

Three vital issues have formed my fascinated by the demise of Christ, and I’m now a lot nearer to the place I began than I imagined I could be.

1. Really Studying the Bible

Anybody can level to the “clobber” verses that current Jesus as an alternative choice to sin’s penalty, comparable to Isaiah 53:5 and a couple of Corinthians 5:21. Loads of individuals discover methods round these to learn the cross one other manner—and with proof texts, that’s at all times doable. But as I started to learn Scripture extra deeply, I got here to see these texts within the gentle of Scripture’s nice themes and typologies. I may see no different strategy to interpret them—the animal skins in Genesis 3, the ram in Genesis 22, the Passover lamb and the firstborn sons, the darkness of judgment the night time of the exodus from Egypt and the darkness that fell as Jesus died, all of the plain language of propitiation and the blood on the mercy seat, and a lot extra.

Really studying the Scriptures of their cohesive entirety, and seeing the Outdated Testomony repeatedly preview the gospel, confirmed me that Jesus bearing our sin and its penalty is central—not peripheral, and never artificially imposed—to the story’s huge sweep.

2. The Trinity

It’s honest to say that some explanations of the cross I heard as a toddler weren’t Trinitarian. “God” was offended at sin however wished to discover a strategy to save us, and “Jesus” was a 3rd celebration who stepped in to make it work. It’s partially true, it’s simplistic, and it might result in a distortion of the gospel and the Trinity. But, none of my Sunday faculty academics was theologically educated, and I used to be 10. Somewhat grace and persistence can maybe be afforded to us all.

It’s no use pitting ‘vindictive God’ towards ‘innocent Jesus,’ for the one nailed to the tree is himself the sin-hating, sinner-saving God.

In line with Scripture, all three individuals of the Godhead are offended by sin. All three individuals are dedicated to destroying sin and to liberating humanity and the world from the curse. Jesus is the everlasting Son, and when he died on the cross, he was there as a result of he’d chosen to put down his life, a plan devised in eternity. Philippians 2:6–eight clearly reveals the pre-incarnate Son of God deciding to tackle flesh, develop into a servant, and go to his demise for sinners. His prayer in Gethsemane, considering the cup of wrath, is that the Father’s will can be achieved by means of his demise (Matt. 26:42).

It’s no use pitting “vindictive God” towards “innocent Jesus,” for the one nailed to the tree is himself the sin-hating, sinner-saving God. The Son’s complicity in his personal condemnation as our substitute is likely one of the gospel’s most wonderful truths. Being clear about this reality doesn’t simply safeguard our faithfulness; it shows Christ’s magnificence and love.

3. The Witness of the Historic Church

For all of the bluster that penal substitution is a late arrival to the celebration of atonement concept, I used to be stunned to learn historical writers providing plain expositions of it. And there have been none of the distortions and infantile lisping I’d been advised to anticipate from exponents of this theology.

For instance, right here is likely one of the earliest Christian apologetic texts now we have, The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus, dated someday within the second century:

O candy change! O unsearchable operation! O advantages surpassing all expectation! that the wickedness of many needs to be hid in a single righteous One, and that the righteousness of One ought to justify many transgressors!

In his exposition of Psalm 51, Augustine (AD 354–430) wrote,

For even the Lord was topic to demise, however not on account of sin: He took upon him our punishment, and so looseth our guilt. . . . Now, as males had been mendacity underneath this wrath by motive of their unique sin . . . there was want for a mediator, that’s for a reconciler, who by the providing of 1 sacrifice, of which all of the sacrifices of the legislation and the prophets had been sorts, ought to take away this wrath. . . . Now when God is claimed to be offended, we don’t attribute to him such a disturbed feeling as exists within the thoughts of an offended man; however we name his simply displeasure towards sin by the title “anger,” a phrase transferred by analogy from human feelings.

Even historical songs celebrated the wrath-bearing sacrifice of Christ. Written 1,500 years in the past, Venantius Fortunatus’s (AD 530–607) lovely hymn, “See the Destined Day Come up,” begins:

See the destined day come up! See a prepared sacrifice!
Jesus, to redeem our loss, hangs upon the shameful cross;
Jesus, who however you can bear wrath so nice and justice honest?
Each pang and bitter throe, ending your lifetime of woe?

I additionally learn modern evangelical classics, John Stott’s The Cross of Christ and J. I. Packer’s What Did the Cross Obtain? and found them to be totally consonant with my primary-source historic studying.

Hallelujah, What a Savior!

Maybe my childhood understanding had been skinny. No nice shock there. However in Scripture, in theology, and in church historical past, I stored staring on the demise of Jesus, in my place, for my sin.

Certain, illustrations must be tweaked, care have to be taken with language, and there are important ideas to be taken into consideration comparable to illustration, headship and union, the overthrow of evil powers, the cosmic victory of the cross, and so forth. But these concerns have solely strengthened and enriched the “good deposit” given to me as a toddler.

Three Causes I Modified My Thoughts About Penal Substitution

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